Common Concepts


The concept of VERSION is used for this. A VERSION is a group of operational data instances which share the same VALIDITY CONDITIONs. A version belongs to a unique VERSION FRAME and is characterised by a unique TYPE OF VERSION (which is a classification of VERSIONs.  E.g shareability of ENTITies between several versions).

A VERSION FRAME is a set of VERSIONS referring to a same DATA SOURCE and belonging to the same TYPE OF FRAME. A FRAME may be restricted by VALIDITY CONDITIONs.


Generic Version Model 

VERSIONS refer to data instances, as an ENTITY is defined as any data instance to be managed in an operational Version Management System. When several data sources coexist (multimodality and/or interoperability), an ENTITY has to be related to a given DATA SOURCE in which it is defined.

However, records of attribute changes may also be managed as shown in the diagram below, where DELTA is a  record of the detailed changes of a given ENTITY IN VERSION from one VERSION to the next one.  A DELTA contains pairs of attributes’ old values – new values.

generic data model

Generic Delta Model 

Validity Conditions

A VALIDITY CONDITION  is a condition used in order to characterise a given VERSION of a VERSION FRAME. A VALIDITY CONDITION consists of a parameter (an ENTITY e.g. date, or a VALIDITY TRIGGER i.e. a triggering event, etc.) and its type of application (expressed in the VALIDITY RULE PARAMETER e.g. for,  from,  until, etc.).


Generic Validity Model 

An  AVAILABILITY CONDITION is a VALIDITY CONDITION expressed in terms of temporal parameters and referring to DAY TYPEs.


Availability Condition Model


Transmodel data will be used in different environments that can have a complex organisational structure. For instance, information is planned, revised, forwarded, enriched, combined with other plans and forwarded again to the final user at some time. This process often involves several organisations or departments.

As different aspects of public transport could be handled by different organisation parts, and sometimes are subcontracted to third parties, it is often useful to describe who is responsible for a specific role, within the delivered data. Examples of RESPONSIBILITY ROLEs are: Data Origination, Data Augmentation, Data Aggregation, Planning, Operation, Control Centre (directive pt-management centre), Monitor Centre (only receiving and collecting data), Data IPR Ownership, Entity Legal Ownership, Scheduler, StopPointManager,, RoadManager, RoadDisplayManager, SubContractor, Travel Information ServiceProvider, etc.

(Generic Organisation Model, Responsibility Role Model).


Generic Organisation Model


Responsibility Role Model

A RESPONSIBILITY SET is a list of possible responsibilities over one or more ENTITies (IN VERSION), resulting from the process of the assignment of RESPONSIBILITY ROLEs (such as data origination, ownership, etc) on specific data (instances) to ORGANISATIONs or ORGANISATION PARTs. Each RESPONSIBILITY SET can contain one or more RESPONSIBILITY ROLE ASSIGNMENTs that allocate different types of RESPONSIBILITY ROLE to an ORGANISATION or a specific ORGANISATION PART.

RESPONSIBILITY SETs may be used at different levels of aggregation. It is possible to specify a different set for each different ENTITY.


Responsibility Role Model

The Generic ORGANISATION Model defines abstract ORGANISATION elements that can be used wherever there is a need to describe an organisation. It is extended with AUTHORITY, OPERATOR and other concrete organisation definitions specifically relevant for the transport domain.

An ORGANISATION PART of an ORGANISATION acts as an ORGANISATIONAL UNIT responsible for the determination of the PT Services, that need to be delivered in an OPERATIONAL CONTEXT often defined or limited to one TRANSPORT MODE or even to one VEHICLE MODE or SUBMODE of one of its DEPARTMENTs. This defines the actual involved OPERATING DEPARTMENT that will act as the serving OPERATOR directly in charge of operations, and, when a contractual link to an AUTHORITY exists, for the ordered services by the public transport AUTHORITY. The serving OPERATORs can be combined for executing this service in a GROUP OF OPERATORS (Generic Organisation Model, Transport Organisations Model).


Responsibility Role Model


Transport Organisations Model

Generic Framework

Points and Links

Topological descriptions of the spatial structure of a public transport network are generally built with points. Thus, an entity POINT is defined as the most basic entity of the network model. A POINT represents a 0-dimension node of the network. It marks the location of bus stops, parking places or other types of POINTs.

Between two POINTs of any type, a LINK may be defined to store spatial information (e.g. the distance a vehicle will cover crossing this link). LINKs represent 1-dimensional connections between POINTs. There must be no LINKs without one limiting POINT at each end. Two relationships between the POINT and the LINK entity specify the limiting POINTs of a LINK. A LINK is oriented from its start POINT to its end POINT.

Transmodel makes it possible to represent the network either as a graph of points or of arcs.

An ordered set of POINTs or LINKs is called a LINK SEQUENCE. These are the generic building blocks of the Public Transport network model. Their specialisations represent concrete special Public Transport objects, like scheduled stop points, routes, service links, etc.


Generic Point and Link Sequence Model

The LOCATION provides a representation of the basic coordinates of those entities that are located in space, for example, POINTs and LINKs and ZONEs. The location is dependent on the LOCATING SYSTEM used. Given a LOCATING SYSTEM, every POINT may be located in this system by a LOCATION. Transmodel uses a subset of the Open Geospatial Consortium’s Geographic Mark-up Language (OGC GML) schema to define coordinates (Location Model).

Topological ENTITIES used for describing a transport network can be grouped into different LAYERs i.e. user-defined GROUPs OF ENTITies, specified for a particular functional purpose, associating data referring to one particular LOCATING SYSTEM (Generic Layer Model).


Location Model


Generic Layer Model

Network data are submitted to VERSIONs and may be grouped to form coherent sets of data using the VERSION FRAME mechanism. VERSION FRAMEs allow data to be managed and exchanged as a coherent version, that is a set of instances (ENTITies IN VERSION) of different entity types that are consistent and correct as to referential integrity and other business semantics and so are suitable for use without extensive consistency checking, for example, by an importing application (Generic Version Model & Generic Version Frame Model).


Generic Version Model


Generic Version Frame Model

Link Sequences

The LINK SEQUENCE Model defines a set of POINTs and/or LINKs making up a path through a network.

It allows a path to be described as a sequence of points, a sequence of links, or both; both views are relevant for different use cases. Specialisations of LINK SEQUENCEs are for example ROUTE, JOURNEY PATTERN, TIMING PATTERN etc. and represent concrete Public Transport paths (Point and Link Sequenece Model).


Point and Link Sequence Model


Transmodel defines a generic GROUP OF ENTITIES as a set of ENTITies, grouped together according to a functional purpose (PURPOSE OF GROUPING).

A concrete example of a use of such grouping is a STOP AREA, that is a grouping of stops known to the public by a common name (Generic Grouping Model).

Other types of sets of entities than groupings are FRAMEs (Generic Version Frame Model) or LAYERs (Generic Layer Model).


Generic Grouping Model


Generic Layer Model

GROUPs OF POINTs, LINKs or LINK SEQUENCEs have a particular importance. A GROUP OF POINTS may be used to describe a central or complex station, consisting of all stops serving the whole area of this station, or any important interchange area. In such a case, the PURPOSE OF GROUPING of the GROUP OF POINTS will limit the grouped POINTs to a certain TYPE OF POINT. This allows one to use classical stop areas to describe limited sets of stops (e.g. a couple of bus stops close to the station). A GROUP OF POINTS may also be used to describe operational clusters, consisting of  POINTs of different types, e.g. located close to each other and/or operationally belonging to an object known by a particular name (e.g. train station, from the operational point of view).

A GROUP OF LINKs may be all LINKs in a tunnel, all LINKs in an urban area, etc.

A concrete GROUP OF LINK SEQUENCEs may be a LINE, i.e. a grouping of ROUTEs that is generally known to the public by a similar name or number (Explicit Grouping Possibilities Model).


Explicit Grouping Possibilities Model


A ZONE is a two-dimension object used in the network description (e.g. administrative area, tariff zone, flexible transport zone). ZONEs are classified according to a TYPE OF ZONE.

A ZONE may be defined by a GROUP OF POINTS belonging to the ZONE. For instance, a TARIFF ZONE used to define a zonal fare structure in a zone-counting or zone-matrix system may be composed of a set of stop points.A ZONE may also be defined as a geometric area, bordered by a LINK SEQUENCE (a polygon). In such a case, this LINK SEQUENCE has to be a closed one (i.e. the first and last POINTs IN LINK SEQUENCE must be a view of the same POINT). A ZONE may be recursive, and include other smaller ZONEs (Generic Zone Model).


Generic Zone Model

Point and Link Types

A TYPE OF POINT is defined as an entity to describe common roles played by a number of POINTs. Each POINT is functionally classified as being of one or more types, according to the specific information needs of a particular functional domain. Certain TYPEs of POINTs are regarded as important enough to be additionally represented by a separate concept. The most important of these are: the SCHEDULED STOP POINT, TIMING POINT, ROUTE POINT.

Other explicitly defined types are specialisations of the TIMING POINT: RELIEF POINT, PARKING POINT, GARAGE POINT (Vehicle & Crew Point Model) or points specifically dedicated to operations control: TRAFFIC CONTROL POINT, ACTIVATION POINT, BEACON POINT (Activation Model).


Main Network Points and Links Model


Vehicle & Crew Point Model


Activation Model

A SCHEDULED STOP POINT is a POINT where passengers can board or alight from vehicles.

A TIMING POINT is a POINT against which the timing information necessary to build schedules may be recorded.

Some operators may want to define run times between any pair of SCHEDULED STOP POINTs (related by a SERVICE LINK). In such a case, probably all SCHEDULED STOP POINTs of the network will also be classified as TIMING POINTs. Other companies will define run times only for a selection of SCHEDULED STOP POINTs: only these will be at the same time TIMING POINTs and SCHEDULED STOP POINTs.  The times related to the rest of the stops would then be derived by processing (e.g. interpolation). Some POINTs, such as garage entry or exit points that are TIMING POINTs only.

Transmodel defines three particular types of POINTs dedicated to Operations Monitoring and Control, namely: ACTIVATION POINT(a POINT where a control process is activated when a vehicle passes it), TRAFFIC CONTROL POINT (a POINT where the traffic flow can be influenced, e.g. where  traffic lights (lanterns), barriers, etc are present) and BEACON POINT (ACTIVATION POINT where a beacon or similar device to support the automatic detection of vehicles passing by is located).
ACTIVATION POINTs may be start/end of an ACTIVATION LINK.  (Activation Model).

ND Activation Model

Activation Links Model

Complex Objects

It is often necessary to define a group of objects of different types in a simpler representation, omitting the details. For instance, a train station composed of tracks, platforms, vending machines, etc., or a depot composed of halls, parking areas, lanes, maintenance facilities, etc., are viewed in some layers as single POINTs. This is described by the entity COMPLEX FEATURE (named by analogy with the GDF standard and usual GIS wording).A COMPLEX FEATURE is composed of one or more SIMPLE FEATUREs. A SIMPLE FEATURE is identical to an instance of either a POINT, a LINK, or a ZONE.

A COMPLEX FEATURE usually combines elements of different kinds such as POINTs, LINKs, ZONEs (each of them not necessarily of the same type), and even other COMPLEX FEATUREs. It should not be mixed up with a group of elements (e.g. GROUP OF POINTS), combining elements of one single type only, for example one GROUP OF LINKs may be all LINKs in a tunnel, which is not a COMPLEX FEATURE (Generic Feature Model).


Generic Feature Model

Layers and Projections

Topological ENTITIES used for describing a transport network can be grouped into different LAYERs. Each LAYER is associated with a one and only one LOCATING SYSTEM, and the entities belonging to the LAYER have a position within this LOCATING SYSTEM. Examples of layers include:

  • Infrastructure layer: describes road or rail network.
  • Route layer: describes route topology.
  • Service layer: describes network of stops served by routes.
  • Timing layer: describes location of timing points and times between them.

(Generic Layer Model).


Generic Layer Model

The mechanism for relating ENTITIES of one LAYER to ENTITIES of another LAYER is called projection. Projection can happen implicitly by transforming the entity position from the source LOCATION SYSTEM to the destination LOCATION SYSTEM. However, there are cases where such automatic transformation is not possible or practical, e.g. if a route needs to be displayed on a schematic map, there is no way of calculating the positions from the spatial coordinates. Transmodel therefore contains a mechanism for explicitly projecting (spatial) entities of one layer to another layer (Generic Projection Model).


Generic Projection Model

The functional views of the network are described as layers. A projection is a mechanism enabling the description of the correspondence between the different layers. This mapping between the layers is particularly useful when spatial data from different environments (sources, functional domains) have to be combined. An example of such a situation is the mapping of the public transport network on the road network or any other correspondence between coherent sets of topological objects often defined by different deparments of a company.

The POINT PROJECTION is used to project a point of a source layer to an ENTITY of the target layer. The target ENTITY can be a POINT or LINK, but not a ZONE. If the target of POINT PROJECTION is a link, the distance from the start of the link is set in POINT PROJECTION.

The LINK PROJECTION is used to project a LINK on one or more LINKs of another layer. As a precondition, the destination link must have one or more POINT ON LINK entities associated with it. The start and end point of the source link are projected on POINT ON LINK of the destination LINKs. An example of LINK projection might be the projection of a LINK between two stops to the LINKs of the road (or rail).

A ZONE PROJECTION involves a ZONE as source. The projected ZONE may be targeting either one POINT or one COMPLEX FEATURE.

The ZONE PROJECTION targeting a POINT expresses that the source ZONE is represented by a POINT in the target layer.The ZONE PROJECTION targeting a COMPLEX FEATURE means that the source ZONE belongs to the COMPLEX FEATURE described in the target layer.

A COMPLEX FEATURE PROJECTION involves a COMPLEX FEATURE as source. The projected COMPLEX FEATURE can be targeting another COMPLEX FEATURE or a POINT (Generic Projection Model).


Generic Projection Model


The accessibility of a site is described using an ACCESSIBILITY ASSESSMENT: this allows to express the accessibility either in terms of suitability for specific USER NEEDs – for example wheelchair, hearing impaired, vision impaired, lift-averse, etc. – using a SUITABILITY element, or in terms of ACCESSIBILITY LIMITATIONs, i.e. description of the limitations of a site to support a specific need, for example Wheelchair, Step free, Escalator free, Lift free or both.

Accessibility Model

Accessibility Model 


A PLACE is defined as a geographic place of any type which may be specified as the origin or destination of a trip. A PLACE may be of dimension 0 (a POINT), 1 (a road section) or 2 (a ZONE).

The PLACE model defines topographically significant places that a transport model may wish to describe.

It also allows the description of the possibility of connecting between them. ACCESS  indicates the physical (spatial) possibility for a passenger to access or leave the public transport system. This link may be used during a trip for:- the walking movement of a passenger from a PLACE (origin of the trip) to a SCHEDULED STOP POINT (origin of the PT TRIP), or- the walking movement from a SCHEDULED STOP POINT (destination of the PT TRIP) to a PLACE (destination of the trip) (Generic Place Model).


Generic Place Model

Reusable Components


Transmodel takes into account a variety of Public Transport MODEs (characterisation of the public transport operation according to the means of transport (bus, tram, metro, train, ferry, ship)). A distinction is made  between VEHICLE MODE and ACCESS MODE. The concept of MODE is refined into SUBMODE, a variant of a MODE, as for instance international or domestic rail (rail being the MODE).


Submode Model


In Transmodel, a DAY TYPE is defined as a combination of various different properties a day may have, and which will influence the transport demand and the running conditions (e.g. traffic flow for buses).

Any single condition that is relevant to the demand will be recorded as a particular PROPERTY OF DAY. For example, “workday”, “Sunday”, “school holiday”, “market day” would each be a PROPERTY OF DAY. A workday during school holidays, which is a market day, would be a DAY TYPE, formed with the combination of those three PROPERTies OF DAY.

The day of operation, considered from the point of view of the transportation process control, is described by the entity OPERATING DAY.The time limits of an OPERATING DAY will often deviate from the official date. One day of operation covers for instance the period from 2.00 a.m. to 1.59 a.m. the day after, the period from 0.00 to 1.59 on the second day being assigned to the operational day which started the day before.

The production planning requires that a DAY TYPE is assigned to each OPERATING DAY, which is frequently referred as a “transportation calendar” or – in The Conceptual Model – as a SERVICE CALENDAR


Service Calendar Model

The Validity Model allows conditions to be attached to elements as to when they are current or the circumstances in which they should be used. VALIDITY CONDITIONs can be attached to specific elements and also, through version frames, to whole sets of objects so that it is possible to be explicit about the exact conditions governing the coherence and relevance of data.

AVAILABILITY CONDITION is a specialization of VALIDITY CONDITION to specify precise temporal conditions. For example, an access to a station may be valid (it exists) but not available for some of the time (it is closed between 9 pm and 6 am). An AVAILABILITY CONDITION can be defined by specific DAY TYPEs and/or OPERATING DAYs. It may be further qualified by one or more of TIME BANDs.


A TOPOGRAPHIC PLACE is a type of PLACE providing the topographical context when searching for or presenting travel information, for example as the origin or destination of a trip. It may be of any size (e.g. County,City, Town, Village) and of different specificity (e.g. Greater London, London, West End, Westminster, St James’s). A TOPOGRAPHIC PLACE may be located within one or more COUNTRies. TOPOGRAPHIC PLACEs may overlap. They may also be contained inside another TOPOGRAPHIC PLACE.

ADDRESS is the descriptive data associated with a PLACE that can be used to describe the unique geographical context of a PLACE for the purposes of identifying it. May be refined as either a ROAD ADDRESS, a POSTAL ADDRESS or both (Topographic Place Model).


Topographic Place Model

Equipment and Facility

Transmodel defines a generic concept EQUIPMENT that specialises into

  • INSTALLED EQUIPMENT, an item of equipment either fixed (PLACE EQUIPMENT) or on board i.e. associated with vehicles (ACTUAL VEHICLE EQUIPMENT). PASSENGER EQUIPMENT may be either fixed or on-board. INSTALLED EQUIPMENT is materialised as opposed to a service (LOCAL SERVICE) considered as an immaterial equipment.
  • PLACE EQUIPMENT is described in a very detailed way through a range of concrete classes (cf. Part 2: Waiting & Luggage Equipment, Passenger Service Equipment, Ticketing Equipment, Access Equipment, Sign Equipment Models)
    • 1

      Generic Equipment Model


      Waiting & Luggage Equipment Model


      Passenger Service Equipment Model


      Ticketing Equipment Model


      Access Equipment Model


      Sign Equipment Model

Vehicle equipment is defined through the entity ACTUAL VEHICLE EQUIPMENT. Two types are particulary important for accessibility VEHICLE ACCESS EQUIPMENT and WHEELCHAIR VEHICLE EQUIPMENT.


EQUIPMENT is an item of equipment installed either fixed (PLACE EQUIPMENT)  or on-board vehicles (VEHICLE EQUIPMENT). A service (LOCAL SERVICE such as LEFT LUGGAGE, TICKETING SERVICE) is considered as immaterial equipment as well (Generic Equipment Model).

A named amenity available to the public at a SITE or on a SERVICE. A facility has no further properties other than a name. An EQUIPMENT or LOCAL SERVICE is used to describe the further properties provided as part of particular facility (Facility Model).


Facility Model

Vehicle Type and Train

The VEHICLE entity is used to describe the physical public transport vehicles available for short-term planning of operations and daily assignment (in contrast to logical vehicles considered for resource planning). Each VEHICLE must be classified as of a particular VEHICLE TYPE.

The VEHICLE TYPE Model represents a description of VEHICLES through their properties.


Vehicle type Model

A TRAIN is a VEHICLE TYPE composed of TRAIN ELEMENTs in a certain order, i.e. of wagons assembled together and propelled by a locomotive or one of the wagons.


Train Model

VEHICLE TYPE is a classification of public transport VEHICLEs according to the vehicle scheduling requirements: in mode and capacity (PASSENGER CARRYING REQUIREMENT, e.g. standard bus, double-deck, …), and/or as regards maneuvering capabilities (MANOEVRING REQUIREMENT), and/or according to the facilities available on the vehicle (FACILITY REQUIREMENT).


Vehicle type Model

Vehicle Scheduling

Chaining vehicle journeys into blocks of vehicle operations is one of the main functions of vehicle scheduling.

The corresponding entities and relationships included in the reference data model allow a comprehensive description of the data needs associated with this functionality, independently of the particular methods and algorithms applied by the different software systems.

A VEHICLE SERVICE is the workplan for a vehicle for a whole day, planned for a specific DAY TYPE

A BLOCK is the work of a vehicle from the time it leaves a PARKING POINT after parking until its next return to park at a PARKING POINT. Any subsequent departure from a PARKING POINT after parking marks the start of a new BLOCK.

A BLOCK includes, in particular, all VEHICLE JOURNEYs (SERVICE JOURNEYs and DEAD RUNs) planned for this period. It also may include SPECIAL SERVICEs. A pause may be added between two journeys or services. Linked to this concept is the concept of COURSE OF JOURNEYS: a part of a BLOCK composed of consecutive VEHICLE JOURNEYs defined for the same DAY TYPE, all operated on the same LINE.

Vehicles of the type TRAIN or COMPOUND TRAIN may be coupled or separated. For the corresponding journeys, COUPLED JOURNEYs or JOURNEY PARTs are created.

A BLOCK PART is a part of a BLOCK corresponding to the different JOURNEY PARTs of the VEHICLE JOURNEYs in a BLOCK.

One or several vehicle BLOCKs may be coupled together for a while. The entity COMPOUND BLOCK represents the work of a vehicle during the time it is coupled to one or more vehicles. If two different vehicles are coupled at a certain point (e.g. a terminus), a COMPOUND BLOCK is created from that instant on. If this COMPOUND BLOCK is joined by a third BLOCK, coupled later at another point, a new COMPOUND BLOCK is formed from that instant on. If one of the BLOCKs is separated before the COMPOUND BLOCK returns to the GARAGE, another COMPOUND BLOCK is formed, composed of the two BLOCKs corresponding to the coupled vehicles.

Timing Information

One of the main principles of Transmodel is to clearly distinguish the space-related concepts from the time-related concepts. The Reference Data model covers, on one hand, the topological aspects of the Public Transport Network and, on the other hand, time-related aspects.

The time-related concepts are presented in the Service Calendar Model (Part 1 – Common Concepts), Time Demand Type Model  (Part 2 – Tactical Planning Components)  and numerous timing information models (Part 3 – Timing Information and Vehicle Scheduling).

The Service Calendar Model is presented on the following diagram:


Time Demand Type Model is presented on the following diagram:


One of the many timing information models is Vehicle Journey Times Model:


See also FAQ "How does Transmodel define timetables?", which explains how are timetable information integrated into Timetable Frame Model.

The Tactical Planning Components Model provides reusable information about transport planning, such as spatial description of journey patterns and service patterns. Reusable journey patterns and service patterns are independent of actual operating times in scheduled journeys.

In most transport networks the scheduled journeys follow the same patterns of movement and the Tactical Planning Components Model allows these to be described as reusable components in their own right.

The elements defined in the Tactical Planning Components Model are subsequently used in the Journey Timing  Model  & Vehicle Journey Times Model to specify actual VEHICLE JOURNEYs at particular times (Vehicle Journey Model).

Two main tactical planning models are Journey Pattern Model and Service Pattern Model:



Transmodel as a generic model mainly considers elementary data concepts. A timetable is an aggregated data. Transmodel considers all elements available to design a timetable. These are represented in the Timetable Frame Model, the main concept being the VEHICLE JOUNEY and its timing.


A VEHICLE JOURNEY is the planned movement of a public transport vehicle on a DAY TYPE from the start point to the end point of a JOURNEY PATTERN on a specified ROUTE (Vehicle Journey Model).

Transmodel considers a journey as a purely time-related concept:  its attributes are times (Departure Time, Journey Duration). A VEHICLE JOURNEY is only linked to the topological object JOURNEY PATTERN.

The work of the vehicles necessary to provide the service offer advertised to the public consists of SERVICE JOURNEYs . DEAD RUNs are  unproductive VEHICLE JOURNEYs necessary to transfer vehicles where they are needed, mainly from the depot into service and vice versa (Service Journey Model).

Vehicle Journey Model and Service Journey Model are presented here:



Transmodel considers different concepts (Coupled Journey Model):

  • a COUPLED JOURNEY: A complete journey operated by a coupled train, composed of two or more VEHICLE JOURNEYs remaining coupled together all along a JOURNEY PATTERN. A COUPLED JOURNEY may be viewed as a single VEHICLE JOURNEY.
  • JOURNEY PARTs:A part of a VEHICLE JOURNEY created according to a specific functional purpose, for instance in situations when vehicle coupling or separating occurs.
  • A JOURNEY PART COUPLE: two JOURNEY PARTs of different VEHICLE JOURNEYs served simultaneously by a train set up by coupling their single vehicles.

Basically the following situations are possible:

Representation of journey timing as PASSING TIMEs (at specific points) derived from the  run times (times taken to traverse TIMING LINKs within the JOURNEY PATTERN related to the VEHICLE JOURNEY)

  • Consideration of  DEFAULT  run time : the default time taken by a vehicle to traverse a TIMING LINK for a specified TIME DEMAND TYPE (Time Demand Times Model)
  • Consideration of  JOURNEY PATTERN RUN TIME: the time taken to traverse a TIMING LINK in a particular JOURNEY PATTERN, for a specified TIME DEMAND TYPE. (Journey Pattern Times Model)
  • Consideration of specific run times for each particular VEHICLE JOURNEY (Vehicle Journey Times Model)
Representation of a  special behaviour of journeys
  • frequency based services (services runing with a regular interval  (every 10 min,  for example)
  • rhythmical services (runs all xxh10, xxh25 and xxh45, for example)

The diagram shows Journey Passing Times Model:


generic data model

Vehicle Journey Times Model

Strictly speaking Transmodel differentiates space-related concepts from time-related concepts.  So the PASSING TIMES are linked to vehicle journeys.

Two main types of PASSING TIMEs do exist:  a set of TIMETABLED PASSING TIMEs  is  linked to a VEHICLE JOURNEY  and a set of DATED PASSING TIMEs is linked to a DATED VEHICLE JOURNEY.

Several  considerations have then to be undertaken, to calculate the timing of a journey, based on a reference TIMING POINT belonging to the covered JOURNEY PATTERN where a ‘departure time’ is specified for the journey at this point, then run and wait times for the different TIMING LINKS (possibly depending on the TIME DEMAND TYPE) have to be considered to determine the PASSING TIMEs at TIMING POINTs . The PASSING TIMEs at stops which are not TIMING POINTs may be determined by interpolation.

Transmodel considers flexibility of services through the assignment of FLEXIBLE SERVICE PROPERTIES  to VEHICLE JOURNEYs (Flexible Service Model).


INTERCHANGE is the scheduled possibility for transfer of passengers between two SERVICE JOURNEYs at the same or different SCHEDULED STOP POINTs (Interchange Model).

INTERCHANGE RULES describe conditions for considering JOURNEYs to meet or not to meet, specified indirectly: by a particular MODE, DIRECTION or LINE. Such conditions may alternatively  be specified directly, indicating the corresponding services. In this case they are either a SERVICE JOURNEY PATTERN INTERCHANGE or a SERVICE JOURNEY INTERCHANGE.

INTERCHANGE has to be differentiated from the concept of CONNECTION. Scheduled INTERCHANGEs represent  operational time constraints for journeys to meet . CONNECTION represent the spatial possibility for a passenger to change from one public transport vehicle to another to continue the trip.

The Interchange Model is presented here:


The tactical planning operations (linked to DAY TYPEs rather than to particular OPERATING DAYs) designs a PRODUCTION PLAN, which is a VERSION associating the production components for a specific OPERATING DAY. Data issued from reference plans for DAY TYPEs are implemented as dated objects for this specific OPERATING DAY. They are then modified according to specific requirements for this day or unexpected changes. A specific VERSION of this plan is frozen as a reference for production for the day in question.

See the Service Calendar Frame Model in the FAQ "How are the time-related aspects of a public transport network taken into account?" for more information about DAY TYPEs.

Network Description

Public Transport Network Topology

The model of the infrastructure network is very basic and simple in Transmodel, made of INFRASTRUCTURE POINTs and LINKs. It is used to represent specific operational constraints (restrictions) for public transport operation resulting from the characteristics of the INFRASTRUCTURE POINTs and LINKs and of VEHICLE TYPEs.The spatial detailed organisation of the infrastructure itself is described by other models and the data is usually provided by GIS data sets.


Infrastructure network Model

Restrictions, i.e. constraints resulting from the physical characteristics of the network are represented in Transmodel by a range of concepts: OVERTAKING POSSIBILITY, IMPOSSIBLE MANOEVRE, MEETING RESTRICTION, VEHICLE TYPE AT POINT. They may be relevant for the scheduling process, because vehicle journeys must be scheduled in a way to avoid such conflicting events.


Network restrictions Model

The term “itinerary” is ambiguous as different types of “itineraries” or “paths” may exist, depending on the purpose to be described: for passengers? for vehicles? along roads? along the rail network? a schematic view?  etc.

The ROUTE entity represents a conventional way of describing a path through the network, to be used by regular PT services (i.e. vehicles). A ROUTE is defined as an ordered list of located POINTs defining one single path through the road (or rail) network. A ROUTE may pass through the same POINT more than once.

ROUTE is a LINK SEQUENCE and must be built in a way that identifies a path without any ambiguity (Line & Route Model).


Line & Route Model

Other specialisations of a LINK SEQUENCE are used to define the work of vehicles: JOURNEY PATTERNs, SERVICE PATTERNs, TIMING PATTERNs (see All Journey Patterns Model).


All Journey Patterns Model

Passenger “paths” are called NAVIGATION PATHs (Navigation Path Model).


Navigation Path Model

A ROUTE is a LINK SEQUENCE, defined by an ordered sequence of (two or more) POINTs ON ROUTE. A ROUTE may pass through the same ROUTE POINT more than once, as in the case of a loop.

Transmodel defines a LINE as a grouping of ROUTEs that is generally known to the public by a similar name or number. These ROUTEs are usually very similar to each other from the topological point of view, being variants of a core route with some deviations only on certain parts.

In order to manage competition between operators or bus lines, PT authorities sometimes define ROUTING CONSTRAINTs, preventing passengers boarding or alighting from a vehicle under certain circumstances.

Several types of constraints are defined.

  • Zone based constraints are defined by a ROUTING CONSTRAINT ZONE. The ZONE may be defined by its contained SCHEDULED STOP POINTS or by its boundary points. ZONEs are usually used to express constraints like “If you board in this ZONE, then you can’t alight in the same ZONE”, or “only alighting is permitted in this ZONE”. The constraint applies to all the POINTs IN JOURNEY PATTERN of specific LINEs included in the ZONE.
  • A SERVICE EXCLUSION constraint expresses the fact that the service on a specific JOURNEY PATTERN (usually a flexible JOURNEY PATTERN) cannot operate when another (regular) service operates.
  • TRANSFER RESTRICTIONs are constraints that can be applied on a CONNECTION or INTERCHANGE between two SCHEDULED STOP POINTs, preventing or forbidding the passenger to make a transfer there.


Routing constraints Model

Transmodel does not have a separate model specifically for Flexible Transport Schemes (FTS), but has extra properties that can be used to describe FTS systems: FLEXIBLE POINT (LINK)  PROPERTIES enabling the definition of a FLEXIBLE ROUTE and a FLEXIBLE LINE.  Different types of FTS are considered:    Virtual line service, Flexible service with main route, Corridor service (Flexible service without main route), Fixed stop area-wide flexible service, Free area-wide flexible service, Mixed types of flexible service (not at POINT level) (Flexible Network Model describing Flexible Points, Links, Zones, Routes and Lines). For example:


Flexible Link, Point and Zone Model

A JOURNEY PATTERN is an ordered list of SCHEDULED STOP POINTs and TIMING POINTs on a single ROUTE, describing the pattern of working for public transport vehicles. A JOURNEY PATTERN may pass through the same POINT more than once (Journey Pattern Model).


Journey Pattern Model

In the domain of Passenger Information SERVICE PATTERNs are of particular importance, i.e.  the specialisation of a JOURNEY PATTERN made up only of (scheduled) STOP POINTs IN JOURNEY PATTERN.

Another concept in this context is also relevant: the SERVICE JOURNEY PATTERN, defined as the JOURNEY PATTERN for a (passenger carrying) SERVICE JOURNEY (Service Pattern Model).


Service Pattern Model

Several points, specifically dedicated to operations monitoring and control, are defined as specialisations of POINT: ACTIVATION POINT, BEACON POINT, GARAGE POINT, RELIEF POINT, PARKING POINT (Activation Model & Vehicle & Crew Point Model).


Activation Model


Vehicle & Crew Point Model

A part of a public transport network where the ROUTEs of several JOURNEY PATTERNs are going in parallel and where the synchronisation of SERVICE JOURNEYs may be planned and controlled with respect to commonly used LINKs and SCHEDULED STOP POINTs. COMMON SECTIONs are defined arbitrarily and need not cover the total lengths of topologically bundled sections (Common Section Model).


Common Section Model

The physical (spatial) possibility for a passenger to change from one public transport vehicle to another to continue the trip, determined by two SCHEDULED STOP POINTs (Service Connection Model). CONNECTION is a passenger view of a transfer.


Service Connection Model

INTERCHANGE is an operational constraint for a transfer: it is defined as the scheduled possibility for transfer of passengers between two SERVICE JOURNEYs at the same or different SCHEDULED STOP POINTs (Interchange Model).


Interchange Model


Transmodel tutorials  have been grouped and organized in the following main sections:

Methodology used in Transmodel

For the definition of Transmodel, the object–oriented modelling notation UML 2 is used for describing, specifying, documenting and visualizing the conceptual data model. The UML specification has proved efficient because it facilitates common understanding and use of conceptual data model.

For more details you can download the following short guide: Use of UML in Transmodel.